My new iPhone 13 has a great feature for identifying plants. Just take a photo of the plant, hit all the right buttons and voila, it gives you the suggested name or names of the plant. It also gives a few links to try to further learn about and identify the plant as well as suggestions for other plants similar to it for further research.
Category Archives: Horticultural Info
How Water Travels Through a Plant
When we need to “Water” ourselves we take a drink towards the top of our stem, our mouth.
This water, sooner or later is then is eliminated, as if by gravity below the point of entry.
Plants, on the other hand, take a drink at the very bottom of their structure, their roots, and then, defying gravity, eliminate the excess at the very top of their structure, their leaves.
How is this journey accomplished?
Pathway of Water Through a Plant
- Water enters the plant through the root hairs.
- It is then conducted upward in the stem via the xylem.
- Water exits the plant through the stomata located on the leaves.
Osmosis is the process used for the water to enter the root hairs.
Cohesion-tension theory is believed to be the method that water is conducted upward via the xylem. Think of adjacent drops of water, which when their exterior barriers are broken, move & merge into one larger drop.
Transpiration is the process of water evaporating from the leaf.
Trimming Hellebores. My First Gardening Task of the Spring
That first sunny warm day in February seduces me into my garden to begin my spring gardening tasks before the last snowstorms of winter reappear for a brief visit. It is a happy day for me each year when I reach for my Felco’s, put on my gardening gloves, pick up my rake and head out to reunite with my garden.
I always start by trimming the hellebores since the longer I wait the more complicated the job becomes. Those stalwart evergreen leaves that have decorated my garden all winter are by this time raggy, spotted and brownish. Hiding beneath them are the brand new buds of the Hellebore flowers just waiting to burst through heralding spring. I love uncovering their light deprived lime green growth and freeing them to bask in the sunshine. Continue reading →
What is the difference between Hardy Bulbs and Tender Bulbs?
Hardy bulbs are planted in the fall and will come up in the spring. The reason they are called hardy is that they can survive and actually need a period of cold in order to bloom in the spring or summer. Given a period of 2-4 months of chilling, (perhaps in the refrigerator?!?) many of these bulbs can be forced into blooming early for a nice break in the dark of winter.
Examples of Hardy Bulbs: Tulips, Narcissus & Daffodils, Lilium, Allium, Leucojum, Galanthus, Arisaema, Mertensia, Dicentra, Crocus, Iris, Colchicum, Erythronium, Fritillaria, Hemerocallis, Hyacinthoides, Muscari, Ornithogalum, Scilla, Anemone blanda
Tender bulbs are planted in the spring for summer blooming. They cannot withstand the winter and must be dug up and stored in a cool dry place. They’re not as easy to force. These bulbs respond more to daylight and to warmth to start their growth cycle. To give them a headstart I usually start my spring and summer bulbs indoors in the late winter so by the spring the plants will be more substantial in size.
Examples of Tender Bulbs: Amaryllis, Dahlias, Begonias, Colocasia, Alocasia, Canna, Ipomoea, Gladiolus, Hedychium
Interested in having these flowers all year long? Visit my online Art Shop and select from an assortment of flowers and gardens.
These double daffodils bloom in mid-spring in my garden. It wasn’t until I began to create this Artwork did I realize that these particular flowers are quite fragrant unlike many of the spring blooming varieties. This made for a nice addition to my enjoyment of creation!
What is a Corm and How Is It Propagated?
Corms look a lot like bulbs on the outside but they are quite different. They have the same type of protective covering and a basal plate like the bulb does, but do not grow in layers.
Instead, the corm is the actual base for the flower stem and has a solid texture. As the flower grows, the corm actually shrivels as the nutrients are used up. Essentially the corm dies, but it does produce new corms right next to or above the dead corm. It has contractile roots that bring down the corms as they rise up to the surface of the soil which is why the flowers come back year after year. Depending on the type of flower, it may take a couple years to reach blooming size.
A corm does not have visible storage rings when cut in half. This distinguishes it from a true bulb.
Many corms produce two different types of roots. Those growing from the bottom of the corm are normal fibrous roots, they are formed as the shoots grow, and are produced from the basal area at the bottom of the corm. The second type of roots are thicker layered roots that form as the new corms are growing, they are called contractile roots and they pull the corm deeper into the soil. They are produced in response to fluctuating soil temperatures and light levels. Once the corm is deep enough within the soil where the temperature is more uniform and there is no light, the contractile roots no longer grow and the corm is no longer pulled deeper into the soil.
The newly dug corms will have cormels that are pea size formed around the top of the old corm. The remains of the old corm will be directly beneath the newly formed corms. When the corm is cleaned up and the old stem removed, the growing point of the corm will be evident. The cormels can be saved and replanted in the back of the garden until they reach flowering size.
Examples of Hardy Corms – Crocus. Arisaema, Crocosmia, Liatris
Examples of Tender Corms: Gladiolus, Colocasia, Alocasia, Bananas (Musa), Ensete, Taro, Xanthosoma
Tunicate bulbs are some of the most familiar bulbs we come in contact with both in and out of our gardens.
Many underground plant structures are generally named bulbs. A definition of a bulb is a plant that incorporates its entire life cycle in an underground storage unit. Technically true bulbs are compressed stems surrounded by fleshy leaves acting as food storage organs. They are in the Monocot family of plants.
Bulbs can be further classified by looking at their various growth habits. Some of these “bulbs” are actually further classified as “true” bulbs, corms, tubers and rhizomes. Examples of these bulbs respectively are: narcissus, crocus, dahlia and canna.
True bulbs are represented by two classifications, tunicate and imbricate as represented by onions and lilies in that order.
Tunicate bulbs have a dry thin paperlike sheath surrounding them which helps to prevent them from drying and improves their storage capability. The basal base plate along with the tunicate sheath hold the bulb together. Roots emerge at the bottom of the basal plate.
We enjoy these bulbs both in the kitchen and in our gardens. Our cooking is enhanced by the addition of the tunicate bulbs of onions, garlic and shallots. The joyous colors in our early spring gardens are presented by our daffodils, tulips and hyacinths.
What are bulbs and how do they differ from corms, tubers and rhizomes?
The term “bulb” is used by most people to refer to plants that have underground, fleshy storage structures. Only some of the plants commonly called bulbs actually are bulbs. The general definition of a bulb is any plant that stores its complete life cycle in an underground storage structure. These underground storage structures store nutrient reserves to ensure the plants’ survival.
Tubers, rhizomes, corms, and bulbs actually all serve the same purpose, just in a different way. They are each a storage unit for food that gives the plant the energy it needs to grow, bloom and complete its lifecycle each and every year.
The energy is created and stored by the foliage’s photosynthesis. You’ve probably heard that it’s important not to cut back the foliage after the bloom has died. That is because the leaves need to have time to absorb energy for next year’s bloom. Each storage system takes differing amounts of time to perform this task. Examples would be Alliums and Daffodils.
Bulbs or bulb-like plants are usually perennials. They have a period of growth and flowering. This is followed by a period of dormancy where they die back to ground level at the end of each growing season.
As with perennials, there are bulbs that are hardy in our climate and others that must be overwintered as house plants or placed in dormant storage.
Bulbs can be broken down into five types of storage structures. These include: true bulbs, corms, (stem) tubers, tuberous roots and rhizomes.
Daffodil Divisions and Classifications
Daffodils are classified using two parts of the flower. For the purpose of this description, the daffodil is divided into two regions, the perianth (petals) and corona (cup).
In further classifying daffodils the perianth (petals) is described by identifying first the outside edge of the petal, then the middle, and lastly the inside part next to the corona.
The information I am providing in this article is gleaned from two sources, The American Daffodil Society and Brent and Becky’s Bulbs. Both of these websites offer untold amounts of information and make enjoying the spring displays even more rich.
The Daffodil Society even has downloadable & printable coloring books for those individuals who work with children’s groups. Brent and Becky’s information filled Fall Bulb catalog arrived just in time for Spring so that we can go out to view daffodils in other gardens and make a list for next year’s display.
All daffodils are classified into one of the thirteen divisions described below:
Division 1 – Trumpet
One flower to a stem, corona (trumpet or cup) as long or longer than the perianth segments (petals).Trumpets usually produce larger bulbs than other divisions. Most have gray/green foliage ½” – 1” wide
Division 2 – Large Cup
One flower to a stem, corona (cup) more than one third but less than equal to the length of the perianth segments (petals).The group that you see the most often used in gardens; perfect for perennializing, picking, forcing and showing; some of the showiest daffodils are in this division and are the ones that give you more ‘bang for your landscape buck’.
Division 3 – Short Cup
One flower to a stem, corona (cup) not more than one third the height of the perianth segments (petals).These are long term perennializers, show flowers and late season picked flowers, often with a spicy fragrance.
Division 4 – Double
Daffodils have a clustered cup, petals or both. There can be one or more flowers per stem.Camellia or roselike flowers; with single of multiple blooms; good for shows, showy gardens, picking and bedding.
Division 5 – Triandrus
Usually more than one flower to a stem, head drooping, perianth segments often reflexed and of silky texture.Fuchia-like blooms often with a fruity fragrance; great in containers.
Division 6 – Cyclamineus
One flower to a stem, perianth significantly reflexed and corona straight and narrow. Some exceptions exist.With their faces looking like they are standing in front of a fan, they look & perform wonderfully in pots & are terrific for forcing; seem to be more tolerant to partial shade moisture as a group.
Division 7 – Jonquilla
Usually several flower heads to a stem, flowers usually fragrant, stem is round in cross-section and foliage is often rush like.Foliage is often reed-like or at least very narrow & dark green. Most like the hot baking summer sun. Better in southern gardens but some are adaptable in cooler climates. Sweetly fragrant. Most are great in pots.
Division 8 – Tazetta
Usually three to twenty flowers to a stout stem, sweet scented and very short cupped. Perianth segments rounded and often somewhat crinkled.Excellent perennialzers with a musky, sweet fragrance; good for Southern gardens & forcing.
Division 9 – Poeticus
Usually one flower to a stem. White petals sometimes stained with the corona color at the base, small flat cup edged with red.Excellent perennials with a spicy fragrance, dogwood-like blooms; good for picking.
Division 10 – Bulbocodium Hybrids
Usually one flower to a stem. Perianth segments insignificant compared with Corona.Cultivars in this division are offspring of the species bulbocodium conspicuus, often referred to as ‘Hoop Petticoat’.
Division 11 – Split Corona
Corona split – usually more than half its length.A division where the cup of the daffodil is split into segments & spreads back against the petals. Sometimes the cup is smooth, often it’s frilly & many other times it’s in between.11a) Collar Daffodils Split-corona daffodils with the corona segments opposite the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in two whorls of three11b) Papillon DaffodilsSplit-corona daffodils with the corona segments alternate to the perianth segments; the corona segments usually in a single whorl of sixColoration of the corona often appears in sunburst-like streaks.
Division 12 – Other Cultivars
Daffodils not falling into any of the previous categories.
Division 13 – Species All species and reputedly wild forms.
Ones that are referred to as species daffodils & most of which are Heirloom & suitable for restoration gardening from 1700 on.
All photos are from the Brent and Becky’s 2013 Fall Catalog.
Disclosure: We receive NO financial or other consideration from either of these organizations for linking to their websites.
Brent and Becky’s Bulbs.. Either read their print catalog or view their digital catalog online.
American Daffodil Society. Visit and learn from their information filled website.
Anatomy and Propagation of a True Bulb
Bulbs (which are referred to as “true bulbs”) grow in layers, much like an onion. At the very center of the bulb is a miniature version of the flower itself. It is composed of a shortened stem covered with modified leaves called scales. Helping the bulb to stay together is something called a basal plate, which is a round, flat area that are the beginnings of the roots on the bottom of the bulb.
Many plants such as daffodils form new bulbs around the original bulb. These bulbs, called offsets, develop from buds within the base of the mother bulb and produce new plants. When these bulbs become overcrowded, the flowers start to diminish in size. This is an indication that it is time to dig up and divide the bulbs.
Examples of True Bulbs: Tulips, Daffodils and Alliums commonly known as Onions
TRUE BULBS ANATOMY
The true bulb has five major parts.
BASEL PLATE: bottom of the bulb which hold the bulb together and from which the roots grow
primary storage tissue
skin-like covering that protects the fleshy scales
consisting of developing flower and leaf buds
develop into bulblets or offsets
Looking closely at Grape Muscari
Grape muscari, otherwise known as Grape Hyacinths live close to the ground. For years I never took much notice of them except for the little spots of brilliant purple that bounced so nicely against the bright yellow daffodils they bloomed along with in April.
Then I got down. Hands and knees down.
What a surprise! How intricate the little flowers are. Little bells dance around a central stem forming a small pyramid. This inflorescence changes shape as it ages and can be more and less tightly knit.
The individual purple doesn’t seem to change on each bell but the overall purple varies when viewed at a distance based upon the tightness of the overall flower.
I enjoyed these 4″ bulbs so much in my garden that I bought a bag of them from Costco one year and low and behold the next spring the flowers that bloomed were very different from my originals. They were more blue than purple and were more rounded than pyramidal.
So I googled Grape Muscari and found a world of cultivars I didn’t previously know existed. That’s one of the things that is so much fun about gardening. You are constantly in a learning mode. You are in for surprises every year and every season. The knowledge and information you acquire just keeps on growing, along with your garden.
So now I know that so far in my garden I have Muscari armeniacum and M. azureaum. Next year I’m sure to have more.
When I made my Digital Mixed Media Painting of my Grape Muscari I was careful to recreate the basal growth of the leaves. It would not have been accurate if I’d placed the leaves higher on the stem. The painting would have looked like a plant Frankenstein. As a Garden Artist, that is not what I’m trying to create.
You can view this Grape Muscari Designer Print artwork and others too in my online Shop!
Sometimes the most fascinating aspect of a flower is before it even arrives. I love to watch the progressive morphing of the Allium bulgaricum as it pushes through the ground early in my perennial bed, usually before I’ve even managed to clean off the winter debris.
These tall, 36″ stalks are very strong and have never needed staking. These particular bulbs have been living in my garden since 2003 after I bought them at an after-season sale at Home Depot. I always scour the sales in various Home Depot stores in my area to capture the treasures left behind by the undiscerning customers.
As the flower grows you can see it bulging through the paper thin protective membrane covering.
I walk daily through my perennial bed waiting for the first tear in the parchment like shield. I would liken it to the first beak marks I’ve seen when a chick is breaking out of it’s shell. Not that I’ve seen chicks very often since I was raised in Brooklyn, which is not noted for farmland.
The flowers pounce forth in a gleeful display of empowerment and spread their wings in umbel fashion sitting proudly on tall stalks overlooking a still short, unfolding and early season perennial garden. These are not glamorous flowers in my opinion but they always add weeks of drama to my early spring theater.
Ground Covers – Epimedium x versicolor ‘Sulphureum’
Not to say that I don’t have any ivy, pachysandra or periwinkle in my garden but I try each year to add more interesting ground covers and reduce the spread of the ordinary.
Epimedium x versicolor ‘Sulphureum’ has proven to be a valuable asset to me since I can play with the sweet pale yellow color of the gentle flowers while they are in bloom in April here on Long Island. One of the chores that I need to do very early in the season, however, is to cut back last year’s growth which becomes ragtag during the winter. This allows the enjoyment of the delicate sprays of two-toned flowers. This is the only maintenance care I need to give this ground cover.
Since this plant has flourished in my garden, each year I am able to divide and share the wealth into other sections of the garden and in fits of generosity even give them to other gardening enthusiasts like myself. I always try to keep a bed of them close to the entrance though since they bloom so early that I want to enjoy each day with them.
In 2001 I transplanted a Rhododendron PJM that was growing under some hemlocks that were, at the time, providing too much shade. I planted it just off the entry deck and placed some epimedium in the general area. Together these bloom in April providing a nice combination of purple and yellow to brighten up my day.
Once the blooming season is over, the leaves open and create a wonderful and carefree weed suppresser. I have not experienced any insect damage which otherwise would make the planting unattractive.
Less pachysandra, more epimedium. Nice goal.
Recently I was asked about replanting trees after the destruction of Storm Sandy. I’ve given a lot of thought to this issue since my garden lost 4 large oaks which were living here before I moved into the shade they kindly provided me.
Following the storm, my arborist Ron Strauss of Tree Believers, (631-864-5514) sent his newsletter , “The Root of the Matter”, with recommendations of what to and what not to replant. Here is what he said:
We recommend that you do not re-plant using the following species of trees (all commonly planted in LI landscapes) that did not endure the storms well.
- Emerald Green Arborvitae
- Leyland Cypress
- White Pine
- Red Oak
- Norway or Crimson King Maple
- Flowering Pear
- Douglas Fir
- Weeping Willow
Now to the question of planting recommendations his list included:
- Sugar maple
- White Oak
- Dawn Redwood
- Green Giant Arborvitae
- Weeping Cherry
- Hollywood Juniper
- Crape Myrtle
For our smaller gardens, trees that I recommend and have or will be planting are:
- Dogwood ‘Stellar Pink’ (this is one of the disease resistant Rutgers hybrids) 15-30’ ht & spread. Pink flowers in early summer.
- Stewartia pseudocamellia var. koreana. Quite slow growing 30’ht, 20’ spread. Decorative bark. White flowers in early summer. Single or multi-trunk.
- Heptacodium miconoides, Seven-son flower. (recommended by Katherine Tracey of Avant Gardens) 15-20’ ht by 8-10’ spread. Full sun. Bloom time:Sept.
For more particulars of each of these trees, don’t forget to search Google for more information to help you make the right investment choice for your own garden.
Thanksgiving Pie Facts
Here are some tidbits of information about some of American’s favorite pies.
Pumpkins are vining annual plants that are part of the Cucurbitaceae or Cucumber family. They are actually winter squash named Cucurbita pepo with the oldest pumpkin related seeds found in Mexico dating back to between 7000 & 5500 BC.
Pumpkins are grown on every continent except Antarctica but the traditional American pumpkin that we are familiar with is the Connecticut Field variety. Pumpkins produce both male and female flowers on each vine and are pollinated by honey bees.
Apples are formally named Malus domestica and they are from the rose family of Rosaceae. The fruit is a pome, which is characterized by one or more carpels surrounded by accessory tissue. This tissue is the edible part and is useful in protecting the buried seeds.
Apple trees were widely planted and seeds distributed by John Chapman who became known as “Johnny Appleseed”. This wide distribution of open pollinated seed helped to widen the choice of available cultivars in early America to over 8,000 of which 100 are grown commercially today.
Sweet Potato Pie
Ipomaea batatas or sweet potatoes belong to the Convolvulaceae family. It is an herbaceous perennial vine, with an edible long and tapered tuberous root. Though distantly related to the potato in the Solanum tuberosum family, it is not a nightshade plant. It was domesticated over 5,000 years ago in either Central or South America but is the staple food for many countries worldwide.
For most of American history sweet potatoes were an important part of the diet but fell out of favor as people became more affluent during the middle of the 20th century. There has been a resurgence of popularity with the awareness of the rich dietary contributions offered by this humble plant.
Life is uncertain, Eat Dessert First!
Disclosure: Facts were gathered from the internet especially Wikipedia.
Hellebore Botany – Which Stage is Acceptable For Flower Show Judging
The question was posed as to why some Hellebore’s can be entered into Flower Show judging and others are rejected. Here’s the long answer.
Understanding the botany of the Hellebore will help explain the answer to the Flower Show suitability.
The attraction and colors of the Hellebore, Figure #1, are not supplied by petals but rather sepals. Petals are usually lost after a flower is fertilized but sepals and bracts don’t suffer the same fate and are persistent
Sepals (A) normally form outside of petals as a protection and support of the bud and flower. There are usually 5 sepals, two outer, two inner and one both. A group of sepals is called a calyx.
The stamens (B) are the male part of the flower and are made up of 2 parts, the long white filament and the anther that sits on top holding the pollen. There can be up to 150 stamens per flower.
The stamens surround the female part of the flower, the carpel (C). Fertilization of the carpels can be by insects, bees or wind.
Replacing the petal in the case of Hellebores are small nectaries (D) that sit at the base of the sepals and provide food for pollinators. They don’t last very long and are shed at the same time as the stamens when the carpels swell with what will become seeds.
Fertilized Hellebores can seem attractive for quite a long time since the sepals are persistent and the swollen carpels (E) are distinctive. The sepals will tend to loose their color vibrancy over time however.
Because the Hellebore in Figure #2 is a fertilized flower, even though the sepals still appear fresh, this is not the stage when it is an acceptable specimen in a formal Flower Show submission.
So, the short answer to the question of whether the Hellebore in Figure #2 is acceptable for Flower Show judging is: No, since the center is a fertilized seed pod.